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高中英语定语从句讲解及练习

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高中英语定语从句讲解及练习
定于从句是高中重点知识,也是高考常考点,大家也不容易掌握,这篇文章主要教你关系代 词引导的定语从句
关系副词引导的定语从句 判断关系代词与关系副词 限制性和非限制性定语从句等内容, 有例题讲解 定语从句在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词词组或代词即先行词。定语从 句通常 出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。 关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which 等。 关系副词有:when, where, why 等。
18.1 关系代词引导的定语从句 关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成
分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。 1)who, whom, that
这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中作主语和宾语。例如: Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that 在从句中作主 语) He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that 在从句 中作宾语) 2) whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同 of which 互换)。例如: They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大家都跑过去 帮忙。 Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。 3)which, that 所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等。例如: A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that 在句中作宾语) The package (which / that)you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散 了。(which / that 在句中作宾语)
18.2 关系副词引导的定语从句 关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。
1)关系副词 when, where, why 的含义相当于\"介词+ which\"结构,因此常常和\"介词+ which\" 结构交替使用。例如:
There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。 Beijing is the place where(in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。 Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理 由吗? 2)that 代替关系副词,可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代 when, where, why 和\"介+which\"引导的定语从句,在口语中 that 常被省略。例如:
▃ ▄ ▅ ▆ ▇ █ █ ■ ▓点亮心灯 ~~~///(^v^)\\\~~~ 照亮人生 ▃ ▄ ▅ ▆ ▇ █ █ ■ ▓

▁▂▃▄▅▆▇█▉▊▋▌精诚凝聚 =^_^= 成就梦想 ▁▂▃▄▅▆▇█▉▊▋▌
His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世 了。
He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。
18.3 判断关系代词与关系副词 方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾
语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如: This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. 这是我去年呆过的山村。 I\'ll never forget the days when I worked together with you.我永远不会忘记与你共事的日
子。 判断改错: (错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year. (错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. (对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year. (对) I\'ll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside. 习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when 联系在一起。此两题错在关系
词的误用上。 方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择
出关系代词/关系副词。 例 1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age?
A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 例 2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held.
A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 答案:例 1 D,例 2 A 例 1 变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago. 例 2 变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held.
在句 1 中,所缺部分为宾语,而 where, that, on which 都不能起到宾语的作用,只有 the one 既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选 D。
而句 2 中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词 where,又因 in the museum 词组,可用介词 in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词 on 用的不对,所以 选 A。
关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系 代词(who, whom, that, which, whose);先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。
18.4 限制性和非限制性定语从句 1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它 主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意 思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开。例如:
▃ ▄ ▅ ▆ ▇ █ █ ■ ▓点亮心灯 ~~~///(^v^)\\\~~~ 照亮人生 ▃ ▄ ▅ ▆ ▇ █ █ ■ ▓

▁▂▃▄▅▆▇█▉▊▋▌精诚凝聚 =^_^= 成就梦想 ▁▂▃▄▅▆▇█▉▊▋▌
This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制 性) The house, which we bought last month, is very nice. 这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性) 2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性 的。例如: Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理?史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。 My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。
This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人,我已经读 了三遍。 3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用 第三人称单数。例如: He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。
Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做 蒸发。 说明:关系代词 that 和关系副词 why 不能引导非限制性定语从句。
18.5 介词+关系词 1)介词后面的关系词不能省略。 2)that 前不能有介词。 3)某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的\"介词+关系词\"结构可以同关系副词 when 和 where 互换。例如:
This is the house in which I lived two years ago. 这是我两年前住过的房子。 This is the house where I lived two years ago. Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? 还记得你加入我们俱乐部的那一 天吗? Do you remember the day when you joined our club?
18.6 as, which 非限定性定语从句 由 as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as 和 which 可代整个主句,相当于 and this 或
and that。As 一般放在句首,which 在句中。例如: As we know, smoking is harmful to one\'s health. 如我们所知,吸烟有害健康。 The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us. 太阳使地球暖起来,这对我们人类
很重要。 典型例题 1)Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise. A. it B. that C. which D. he
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▁▂▃▄▅▆▇█▉▊▋▌精诚凝聚 =^_^= 成就梦想 ▁▂▃▄▅▆▇█▉▊▋▌
答案 C. 此为非限定性从句,不能用 that 修饰,而用 which.,it 和 he 都使后句成为句 子,两个独立的句子不能单以逗号连接。况且选 he 句意不通。 2)The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it
答案 B。which 可代替句子,用于非限定性定语从句,而 what 不可。That 不能用于非限 定性定语从句,it 不为连词,使由逗号连接的两个句子并在一起在英语语法上行不通。 3)It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park.. A. that B. which C. as D. it
答案 B. as 和 which 在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整 个意思,且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点: (1)as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而 which 不可。 (2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行 为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用 which.。在本题中,prevent 由于是行为动词,所以正 确选项应为 B。 as 的用法 例 1. the same…as;such…as 中的 as 是一种固定结构, 和……一样……。例如:
I have got into the same trouble as he (has). 我碰到了跟他一样的麻烦。 例 2. as 可引导非限制性从句,常带有\'正如\'。例如:
As we know, smoking is harmful to one\'s health. 如我们所知,吸烟有害健康。 As is known, smoking is harmful to one\'s health. As 是关系代词。例 1 中的 as 作 know 的宾语;例 2 中,它充当从句的主语,谓语动词 know 要用被动式。
18.7 先行词和关系词二合一 1) Whoever spits in public will be punished here. (Whoever 可以用 anyone who 代替) 2) The parents will use what they have to send their son to technical school.(what 可以用 all
that 代替)
18.8 what/whatever; that/what; who/whoever 1)what = the thing which;whatever = anything。例如:
What you want has been sent here. 你要的动词都送来了。 Whatever you want makes no difference to me. 不管你要什么,跟我没什么关系。 2) who= the person that whoever= anyone who。例如: (错)Who breaks the law will be punished. (错)Whoever robbed the bank is not clear. (对)Whoever breaks the law will be punished. 王子犯法,与庶民同罪。 (对)Who robbed the bank is not clear. 谁抢了银行还不清楚。 3) that 和 what 当 that 引导定语从句时,通常用作关系代词,而引导名词性从句时,是个不充当任何成 分的连接词。宾语从句和表语从句中的 that 常可省略。What 只能引导名词性从句,用作连
▃ ▄ ▅ ▆ ▇ █ █ ■ ▓点亮心灯 ~~~///(^v^)\\\~~~ 照亮人生 ▃ ▄ ▅ ▆ ▇ █ █ ■ ▓

▁▂▃▄▅▆▇█▉▊▋▌精诚凝聚 =^_^= 成就梦想 ▁▂▃▄▅▆▇█▉▊▋▌
接代词,作从句的具体成分,且不能省略。例如: I think(that)you will like the stamps. 我想你会喜欢这些邮票的。 What we need is more practice. 我们需要的是更多的实践。
18.9 关系代词 that 的用法 1)不用 that 的情况
a) 引导非限定性定语从句时。例如: (错)The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here.
b) 介词后不能用。例如: We depend on the land from which we get our food. 我们依赖土地获得食物。 We depend on the land that/which we get our food from.
2) 只能用 that 作为定语从句的关系代词的情况 a) 在 there be 句型中,只用 that,不用 which。 b) 在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little 等作先行词
时,只用 that,不用 which。 c) 先行词有 the only, the very 修饰时,只用 that。 d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用 that。. e) 先行词既有人,又有物时。例如:
All that is needed is a supply of oil. 所需的只是供油问题。 Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 那贼最终把偷的全部
东西交给了警察。
19. 状语从句 19.1 地点状语从句
地点状语从句通常由 where, wherever 引导。例如: Where I live there are plenty of trees. 我住的地方树很多。 Wherever I am I will be thinking of you. 不管我在哪里我都会想到你。
19.2 方式状语从句 方式状语从句通常由 as, (just) as…so…, as if, as though 引导。
1)as, (just) as…so…引导的方式状语从句通常位于主句后,但在(just) as…so…结构 中位于句首,这时 as 从句带有比喻的含义,意思是\"正如…\",\"就像\",多用于正式文体。 例如:
Always do to the others as you would be done by. 你希望人家怎样待你,你就要怎样待人。 As water is to fish, so air is to man. 我们离不开空气,犹如鱼儿离不开水。 Just as we sweep our rooms, so we should sweep backward ideas from our minds. 正如打扫房屋一样,我们也要扫除我们头脑中落后的东西。 2)as if, as though 两者的意义和用法相同,引出的状语从句谓语多用虚拟语气,表示与事实相反,有时也 用陈述语气,表示所说情况是事实或实现的可能性较大。汉译常作\"仿佛……似的\",\"好 像……似的\"。例如:
▃ ▄ ▅ ▆ ▇ █ █ ■ ▓点亮心灯 ~~~///(^v^)\\\~~~ 照亮人生 ▃ ▄ ▅ ▆ ▇ █ █ ■ ▓

▁▂▃▄▅▆▇█▉▊▋▌精诚凝聚 =^_^= 成就梦想 ▁▂▃▄▅▆▇█▉▊▋▌
They completely ignore these facts as if (as though) they never existed. 他们完全忽略了 这些事实,就仿佛它不存在似的。(与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。)
He looks as if (as though) he had been hit by lighting. 他那样子就像被雷击了似的。(与 事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。)
It looks as if the weather may pick up very soon. 看来天气很快就会好起来。(实现的可能 性较大,谓语用陈述语气。)
说明:as if / as though 也可以引导一个分词短语、不定式短语或无动词短语。例如: He stared at me as if seeing me for first time. 他目不转睛地看着我,就像第一次看见我似 的。 He cleared his throat as if to say something. 他清了清嗓子,像要说什么似的。 The waves dashed on the rocks as if in anger. 波涛冲击着岩石,好像很愤怒。
19.3 原因状语从句 比较 because, since, as 和 for: 1)because 语势最强,用来说明人所不知的原因,回答 why 提出的问题。当原因是显而易 见的或已为人们所知,就用 as 或 since。例如:
I didn\'t go, because I was afraid. 我不去是因为我怕。 Since /As the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey. 天气那么糟,旅行推迟了。 2)由 because 引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗号,则可以用 for 来代替。但如果不是 说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用 for。例如: He is absent today, because / for he is ill. 他今天缺席,因为他病了。 He must be ill, for he is absent today. 他一定病了,所以今天缺席。 19.4 目的状语从句 表示目的状语的从句可以由 that, so that, in order that, lest, for fear that, in case 等词引导。 例如: You must speak louder so that /in order that you can be heard by all. 你必须大点声,别人就 能听见了。 He wrote the name down for fear that(lest) he should forget it. 他写下了这个名字以免以 后忘记。 Better take more clothes in case the weather is cold. 最好多穿点衣服,以防天发冷。
19.5 结果状语从句 结果状语从句常由 so…that 或 such…that 引导。so…that 与 such…that 之间可以转换。例
如: The boy is so young that he can\'t go to school. 这男孩年龄太小,不能上学。
He is such a young boy that he can\'t go to school
19.6 条件状语从句 连接词主要有 if, unless, as/so long as, on condition that 等。if 引导的条件句有真实条件句
和非真实条件句两种。非真实条件句已在虚拟语气中阐述。
▃ ▄ ▅ ▆ ▇ █ █ ■ ▓点亮心灯 ~~~///(^v^)\\\~~~ 照亮人生 ▃ ▄ ▅ ▆ ▇ █ █ ■ ▓

▁▂▃▄▅▆▇█▉▊▋▌精诚凝聚 =^_^= 成就梦想 ▁▂▃▄▅▆▇█▉▊▋▌
unless = if not. 例如: Let\'s go out for a walk unless you are too tired. 如果不太累,我们去散散步。 If you are not too tied, let\'s go out for a walk. 典型例题 You will be late ___ you leave immediately. A. unless B. until C. if D. or 答案 A。句意:除非你立即走,否则你就回迟到的。可转化为 If you dong leave immediately, you will be late。B、D 句意不对,or 表转折,句子如为 You leave immediately or you will be late.
19.7 让步状语从句 1)though, although 引导的让步状语从句,后面的从句不能有 but,但是 though 和 yet 可连 用。例如: Although it\'s raining, they are still working in the field. 虽然在下雨,但他们仍在地里干活。
He is very old, but he still works very hard. 虽然他很老了,但仍然努力地工作。 Though the sore be healed, yet a scar may remain. 伤口虽愈合,但伤疤留下了。(谚语) 2) as, though 引导的让步从句必须表语或状语提前(形容词、副词、分词、实义动词提前)。 例如: Child as /though he was, he knew what was the right thing to do. 虽然是个小孩,该做什么不做什么,他全知道。 3) ever if, even though 即使。例如:
We\'ll make a trip even though the weather is bad. 即使天气不好,我们也要去远足。 4) whether…or… 不管……都。例如:
Whether you believe it or not, it is true. 信不信由你,这确实是真的。 5) \"no matter +疑问词\" 或\"疑问词+后缀 ever\" 。例如:
No matter what happened, he would not mind. =Whatever happened, he would not mind. 不管发生什么,他不在意。
替换:no matter what = whatever no matter who = whoever no matter when = whenever no matter where = wherever no matter which = whichever no matter how = however
注意:no matter 不能引导主语从句和宾语从句。 (错)No matter what you say is of no use now. (对)Whatever you say is of no use now. 你现在说什么也没用了。(Whatever you say 是 主语从句)
(错)Prisoners have to eat no matter what they\'re given, (对)Prisoners have to eat whatever they\'re given.囚犯们只能给什么吃什么。
▃ ▄ ▅ ▆ ▇ █ █ ■ ▓点亮心灯 ~~~///(^v^)\\\~~~ 照亮人生 ▃ ▄ ▅ ▆ ▇ █ █ ■ ▓

▁▂▃▄▅▆▇█▉▊▋▌精诚凝聚 =^_^= 成就梦想 ▁▂▃▄▅▆▇█▉▊▋▌

19.8 比较 while, when, as 1)as, when 引导短暂性动作的动词。例如:
Just as / Just when / When I stopped my car, a man came up to me. 我一刹车,有一个人 向我走来。 2)当从句的动作发生于主句动作之前,只能用 when 引导这个从句,不可用 as 或 while。 例如:
When you have finished your work, you may have a rest. 赶完活后,你可以休息一下。 3)从句表示\"随时间推移\"连词能用 as,不用 when 或 while。例如:
As the day went on, the weather got worse. 日子一天天过去,天气越变越坏。

19.9 比较 until 和 till 此两个连词意义相同。肯定形式表示的意思是\"做某事直至某时\",动词必须是延续性
的。否定形式表达的意思是\"直至某时才做某事\"。动词为延续性或非延续性都可以。正确 使用这两个连词的关键之一就在于判断句中的动词该用肯定式还是否定式。肯定句:I slept until midnight. 我一直睡到半夜时醒了。
Wait till I call you. 等着我叫你。(在肯定句中可用 before 代替。例如 Let\'s get in the wheat before the sun sets.)
否定句:She didn\'t arrive until 6 o\'clock. 她直到 6 点才到。 Don\'t get off the bus until it has stopped. 公共汽车停稳后再下车。 I didn\'t manage to do it until you had explained how. 直到你教我后,我才会做。 区别:1)until 可用于句首,而 till 通常不用于句首。例如:
Until you told me, I had heard nothing of what happened. 直到你告诉我以前,出了什么事 我一点也不知道。
2)until when 疑问句中,until 要放在句首。例如: ---Until when are you staying? 你呆到什么时候? --- Until next Monday. 呆到下周一。 注意:否定句可用另外两种句式表示。 1)Not until…在句首,主句用倒装。例如:
Not until the early years of the 19th century did man know what heat is. 直到 19 世纪初, 人类才知道热为何物。
Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted. 直到工作,才认 识到我已蹉跎了几多岁月。 2)It is not until… that… 。例如:
It was not until I began to work that I realized how much time I had wasted.

19.10 表示\"一…就…\"的结构 hardly/scarcely…when/before, no sooner…than
思。例如:

和 as soon as 都可以表示\"一…就…\"的意

I had hardly / scarcely got home when it began to rain. 刚回家,就下起雨来了。

I had no sooner got home than it began to rain.

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As soon as I got home, it began to rain. 注意:如果 hardly, scarcely 或 no sooner 置于句首,句子必须用倒装结构。例如: Hardly / Scarcely had I got home when it began to rain. No sooner had I got home than it began to rain.
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