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2015年职称英语考试语法汇总(综合类A级)

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2015 年职称英语考试语法汇总 不定代词的数 英语中要对 "2 "这个数特别敏感: 1) 两个中一个、另一个: one , the other; 三个或三个以上 中另一个:another / any one 2) 两个都:both; 两个都不:neither; 两个中任一个:either 3) 三个或三个以上都:all; 都不:none 4) 不知总数:一些:some ;另一些:others(有余数) 5) 知道总数:一些:some ; 另一些 (没有余数了):the others 注意以下表达方式: each other / one another / one after another / one by one / the other day (过去的某一天)/ some day (今后的某一天) / every other day (隔天)/ on alternative days(隔 天)/ someone else (别人) / something (anything, nothing) else (别的事) 实例:上学吧视频超市 I'm sorry, I'm a stranger, too. You may ask ______ across the street. A. another one B. others C. the other one D. someone else 解题思路:虽然 A、B、C 没有语法错误,但 D 是*惯表达方式。

其他应注意的数的表达形式 1)a three-year-old boy 比较 The boy is three years old 2) five thousand people / several thousand people 比较 thousands of people 表达具体数字时,thousand 不加 "s",后面不加 "of "; ten, million, billion 情况以此类推。上学吧视频超市 3) One-third of the students have passed College English Test Band IV. Two-thirds of the students have passed College English Test Band IV. One-third of the population in this area is living below the poverty line. (这个地区有 1/3 人口生活在贫困线以下。) 注意: 几分之几的表达形式;动词的单复数由后面的名词数决定。 4) a looker-on 比 较 two lookers-on( 旁 观 者 ) / a brother-in-law 比较 two brothers-in-law(姻亲兄弟) 5) my father, together with (along with / with / as well as my mother and brothers) 结构中,主语作单数处理,即 my father 单位词的使用上学吧视频超市 (1) 不可数名词表示多少,一般用 much, (a) little, a lot of, enough 等词表达,要数 1,2,3,4…时要用"量词"表达,最常用的 是 a piece of (news, advice, furniture, information…)。

(2) 成双成对的名词一般用复数,如:a pair of trousers (裤 子) / scissors(剪刀) / glasses (spectacles)(眼镜) / pliers(钳 子) (3) a couple of 表示一对,或 2-3…,如:a couple of days / people / things (4) 记住以下量词表达方式:上学吧视频超市 a loaf (two loafs) of bread (一个(两个)面包) a burst of laughter(一阵笑声) a fit of anger / chill(一阵发怒 / 发冷) a game of chess (一盘棋) a lump of sugar (一块方糖) 量词的使用: 由于英语中名词分可数与不可数,量词的使用也有区别: 修饰可数名词 (a) few / fewer / fewest many / more / most a great (good) many many a a number of the number of 既可修饰可数名词 也可修饰不可数名词 a lot of / lots of 上学吧视频超市

plenty of (time, money, people) 修饰不可数名词 (a) little / less / least much / more / most a great (good) deal of an amount of / amounts of the amount of 量词使用中应注意的几个问题:上学吧视频超市 1) 分清可数名词和不可数名词是前提; 2) 不要把量词的形式搞混淆了:下面哪个表达形式是对的? A. A lot students have come back from the summer holiday. B. A few of the students have come back from the summer holiday. C. A great many of students have come back from the summer holiday. D. Many a student has have come back from the summer holiday. E. The number of students have come back from the summer holiday. F. A number of students have come back from the summer holiday. 以上六个表达方式中只有 F 是对的。为什么?

A. a lot students → a lot of students B. a few of the students → a few students C. a great many of students → a great many students D. Many a student has come back from the summer holiday. E. The number of 表示数目,如:The number of the students in our class is 50. A number of 表示"一些","不少",认真对比一下,看出问题来 了吗? 问多少钱、多少重量时用:How much…?问距离时用:How far is it from…to…? 注意以下表达方式中名词的复数形式 上学吧视频超市 to be / make friends with(友好 / 交朋友) to change places with (交换位置) to make preparations for(为…作准备) to give regards to(向…问好) to make matters worse(把事情弄糟) to hurt feelings(伤害感情) to be all smiles(满脸堆笑) to take sides (偏袒某方) to have words with(吵架) to burst into tears (突然哭了) family(家庭), group(小组), police(警察),committee(委员

会), team(组), box(盒), audience(观众)等词,可以是单数,也可 以是复数,关键要看题目所给的提示,例如:上学吧视频超市 The whole box of matches _____ wet; I couldn't light a simple one A. was B. is C. were D. are 解题思路:这道题如果没有后半句 I couldn't light a simple one,是没办法解答的。这句话提示了两点: (1)时态为"过去时",故 B、D 已不可能了; (2)"a simple one"说明是指盒子内的一根根火柴,故答案为 C. 试想,如果我们把后半句改为 "I had to throw it away", 那么正 确答案应是 A. 所以,看清题目的提示对于解题是非常重要的。 名词做另一名词的修饰语: 一般用单数形式,如:a college student 中的 college 为单数 形式。 注意: (1) 以下名词做另一名词修饰语时要用复数形式:sport → a sportsman ( 运 动 员 )/ sale → a sales department( 销 售 部 ) / savings → a savings account (储蓄存款)/ communication → a

communications satellite (通讯卫星) / greeting → a greetings cable(慰问电) (2) 不规则名词修饰另一名词时数的变化:a woman doctor (一 个女医生) → two women doctors (两个女医生 ) / the Chinese women's volleyball team (中国女排) / a children hospital (儿 童医院) 形式上是复数的学科名称,如 physics , statistics, dynamics 作单数看待;时间、距离、钞票、重量等复数,可以看作一个整体作 单数处理,如:Two days is not enough for me to finish the task. (要我完成此项任务两天是不够的。) 以下名词单复数同形:上学吧视频超市 means(手段) headquarters(司令部) works(工厂) species(物种) aircraft(飞机) Chinese(中国人) sheep(羊) fish(鱼) 中国的计量单位:li(里), yuan(元), mu(亩)等 实例: Every means has been tried out, but without satisfactory results. (每个方法都试过了,但结果不令人满意。) 以下名词为不可数名词: news(消息) information(信息) furniture (家具) equipment(设备)

advice (劝告) weather(天气) work*(工作) clothing(衣服) baggage(行李) work 作 "工作" 解释时为不可数名词,"找工作"不能说 to find a work, 应为 to find a job; work 作"着作"、"作品"解时是可数名 词,如:Deng Xiaopin's works (邓小*着作)/ a work about Deng Xiaopin (一件关于邓小*的作品);作 "工厂" 解释时,单复数同形: a steel works (一个钢铁厂) / two chemical works(两家化工厂) 实例:上学吧视频超市 We have a large staff but there ______ in the office. A. haven't many furnitures B. aren't many furnitures C. hasn't much furniture D. isn't enough furniture 解题思路:根据名词数的概念 A、B 肯定错,不必考虑;C、D 的 主要差异是 "hasn't" 与 "isn't", 句子中有 there ,说明该句是 there be 句型,故正确答案为 D.题中 staff, office 等词与解题无 关。 注意辨别句子中斜体词的数及其意义: There is still much room for improvement. ( 仍有许多改进 的余地) 上学吧视频超市 He has published two important papers on this subject. (他

在这个课题上已发表了两篇重要论文。) 名词的可数和不可数: 与汉语不同,英语中名词要区分可数与不可数。 笼统地讲,物质名词,如:water(水), iron(铁), wood(木头) 等 , 和 抽 象 名 词 , 如 : democracy( 民 主 ), freedom( 自 由 ), happiness(幸福)等为不可数。 不可数名词前不能加 a (an),后面不能加 s (es),这是考试中 对此类题目判断的重要依据。上学吧视频超市




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