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2018高考英语二轮复习阅读理解话题学案(七)新闻报道类ppt课件全面版_图文

话题学案(七) 新闻报道类
新闻报道类文章因时代性强、内容鲜活、富有生活气 息而倍受阅读者的喜爱,因此也成为命题人青睐的热门题 材之一。此类文章由于信息量较多,文章具有跳跃性大、 思维不太连贯的特征,且作者为激发读者的阅读兴趣,常 利用倒叙、插叙等写作手法,这就给阅读带来一定困难。 在题目设置方面,由于信息定位具体,做题相对较易。

[高考典例——2017·全国卷Ⅲ阅读理解D] The Intelligent Transport team at Newcastle University have turned an electric car into a mobile laboratory named “DriveLAB” in order to understand the challenges faced by older drivers and to discover where the key stress points are. Research shows that giving up driving is one of the key reasons for a fall in health and well-being among older people, leading to them becoming more isolated (隔绝) and inactive. Led by Professor Phil Blythe, the Newcastle team are developing in-vehicle technologies for older drivers which they hope could help them to continue driving into later life.

These include custom-made navigation (导航) tools, night vision systems and intelligent speed adaptations. Phil Blythe explains: “For many older people, particularly those living alone or in the country, driving is important for preserving their independence, giving them the freedom to get out and about without having to rely on others.”
“But we all have to accept that as we get older our reactions slow down and this often results in people avoiding any potentially challenging driving conditions and losing confidence in their driving skills. The result is that people stop driving before they really need to.”

Dr Amy Guo, the leading researcher on the older driver study, explains: “The DriveLAB is helping us to understand what the key stress points and difficulties are for older drivers and how we might use technology to address these problems.”
“For example, most of us would expect older drivers always go slower than everyone else but surprisingly, we found that in 30mph zones they struggled to keep at a constant speed and so were more likely to break the speed limit and be at risk of getting fined. We're looking at the benefits of systems which control their speed as a way of preventing that.”
“We hope that our work will help with technological solutions (解决方案) to ensure that older drivers stay safer behind the wheel.”

语篇解读:本文是一篇新闻报道。文章介绍了英国纽卡斯 尔大学的智能交通研究团队建立移动实验室,研究老年人 开车存在的问题和难点,帮助老年人安全驾驶。
1.What is the purpose of the DriveLAB? A.To explore new means of transport. B.To design new types of cars. C.To find out older drivers' problems. D.To teach people traffic rules.

解析:细节理解题。根据第一段最后一句中的“in order to understand the challenges faced by older drivers and to discover where the key stress points are”可知,“DriveLAB” 的目的是要找出老年人开车的问题所在,并利用技术来解决 这些难题,故选C。
答案:C

2.Why is driving important for older people according to Phil
Blythe?
A.It keeps them independent.
B.It helps them save time.
C.It builds up their strength.
D.It cures their mental illnesses. 解析:细节理解题。根据第四段中的“For many older people, particularly those living alone or in the country, driving is important for preserving their independence, giving them the freedom to get out and about without having to rely on others.” 可知,对于老年人来说,开车对保持他们生活的独立性至关重 要,故选A。 答案:A

3.What do researchers hope to do for older drivers? A.Improve their driving skills. B.Develop driver-assist technologies. C.Provide tips on repairing their cars. D.Organize regular physical checkups.
解析:推理判断题。根据第三段中的“the Newcastle team are developing in-vehicle technologies for older drivers which they hope could help them to continue driving into later life”可知,研究者正 在研发车载式的技术以帮助老年人晚年依然能开车,故选B。 答案:B

4.What is the best title for the text? A.A New Model Electric Car B.A Solution to Traffic Problems C.Driving Services for Elders D.Keeping Older Drivers on the Road 解析:标题归纳题。本文的关键词是老年人驾车,重点讲述 了为了保证老年人安全驾车所进行的辅助驾驶系统的研发。 答案:D

词汇积累 1.journalist n. 2.publish vt. 3.professional adj. 4.approve vt. 5.high-tech adj. 6.statement n. 7.announce v. 8.witness v.

记者,新闻工作者 出版;发行 专业的 赞成,批准 高科技的 声明,陈述 宣布;宣告 见证;目击

9.data n. 10.comment vt.&n. 11.the media 12.news summary 13.news release 14.press conference 15.reliable source

数据;资料 评论 新闻界 新闻摘要 新闻发布 记者招待会 可靠新闻来源

读文技法——明行文结构读文法
新闻报道类常采用的写作方式有顺序、倒叙和插叙等几 种,高考选文篇幅均不是很长(大都是原文的片段截取),所 以选文的写作方式体现得很明显。在读文时,先快速浏览一 下全文,明确了写作方式,对准确理解文意大有帮助。对顺 序类写作文章,多关注时间、地点的变化;对倒叙类文章, 则多关注结果、原因;对插叙类文章,则多关注背景等。如 本文就是按倒叙来行文的:

1.先交代事情的结果:智能交通研究团队研发了一种名为 “DriveLAB”的辅助驾驶系统。
2.分析研发的原因:由于过早地放弃驾驶,老年人的身体 健康状况和幸福感下降,研发团队致力于技术开发, 来解决老年人的这些问题,让老年人可以一直“在路 上”享受开车的自由和乐趣。

题型技法——主旨大意类之标题归纳题 [解题流程] (以“高考典例” 第4题为例 )

请点击

4.What is the best title for the text? A.A New Model Electric Car B.A Solution to Traffic Problems C.Driving Services for Elders D.Keeping Older Drivers on the Road

[规律方法] 1.常见设问方式
(1)What is the best title for this passage? (2)The most suitable title of this passage is ________. (3)Which of the following can be the best title for this passage?

2.常见主题句位置
(1)概括性——准确而又简洁。一般为单词、短语或句子形 式,短语居多。 (2)针对性——标题内涵和外延正好与文章内容相符。 (3)醒目性——能吸引读者的注意力,唤起读者的阅读欲望。

3.确定文章标题的3个方法 (1)正面肯定法:在理解文章主旨的基础上,揣摩哪个选项 能准确概括主旨; (2)反面否定法:撇开原文,设想以各个备选项为标题写出 来的“文章”将是什么内容,然后和原文章对照,一一排 除不恰当的选项; (3)研读备选项本身:研读备选项里面的中心词、修饰词的 变化、结构、概括性等。

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词数 271

A 建议用时
7分钟

实际用时

押题指数 ★★★★

(2017·昆明市高三复习教学质量检测)

US private rocket company SpaceX has announced that

two private citizens have paid to be sent around the Moon.The mission (任务) is planned for late 2018.SpaceX CEO Elon Musk

said, “This presents an opportunity for humans to return to

deep space for the first time in 45 years.”

The two unnamed people will fly aboard a spaceship which is set for its first unmanned test flight later this year.The co-operation of America's NASA space agency has made the plan possible.Mr.Musk said,“The two passengers will travel faster and further into the solar system than any before them.” Like the Apollo astronauts before them, these individuals will travel into space carrying the hopes and dreams of all humankind, driven by the universal human spirit of exploration.

“We expect to conduct health and fitness tests, as well as beginning initial training later this year.The first mission would be unmanned, and the next one — with crew — was expected in the second quarter of 2018,” the rich businessman and inventor said. “The first passengers are entering this with their eyes open, knowing that there is some risk here.They're certainly not childish, and we'll do everything we can to reduce that risk, but it's not zero.”

The space tourists would make a circle around the Moon, scanning the lunar surface and then going well beyond.However, the mission will not involve a lunar landing.“If NASA decided to take part in a lunar fly-by mission, then the agency would have privilege,” Mr.Musk said.The US has not sent astronauts to the Moon since the early 1970s.
语篇解读:本文是一篇新闻报道。美国的SpaceX公司宣布他们将 于2018年安排两个市民去月球。文章详细描述了他们的计划。

1.Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the text? A.The two tourists can't afford to fly around the Moon. B.Space travel is rooted in the human spirit of exploration. C.Initial training is expected to be conducted at the beginning of 2018. D.The two tourists are expected to fly at slow speed.
解析:细节理解题。根据第二段的最后一句可知,同在他们之前 的“阿波罗”号的宇航员一样,受人类探索精神的鼓舞,这些人 将带着全人类的梦想和希望进行太空旅行。据此可知,太空旅行 根植于人类的探索精神,故B项正确。 答案:B

2.The agency has privilege because________. A.it needs co-operation with Mr.Musk B.it has previous technical skills C.it will be able to remove all the risks D.it has to make money for research 解析:推理判断题。根据最后一段中的“If NASA decided to
take part in a lunar fly-by mission, then the agency would have privilege”和文章的最后一句可知,如果NASA参加月球探测 飞行任务,那么这家代理机构将拥有特权。据此可以判断, 这是因为这家机构有之前的技术技能,故B项正确。 答案:B

3.Where can you most probably read the text?

A.In a textbook.

B.In science fiction.

C.In a travel brochure.

D.On a news website.

解析:文章出处题。根据第一段尤其是第一句并结合全文内容可

知,本文是一篇新闻报道,报道了美国的SpaceX公司宣布他们将

于2018年安排两个市民去月球,这两个市民已经支付了费用,文

章详细描述了他们的计划。据此可以判断,本文最可能摘自新闻

网站,故D项正确。 答案:D

4.What can be a suitable title for the text? A.The Coming Moon Trip of Two Private Citizens B.An Opportunity to Explore Space for the First Time C.A Paid Trip Planned by SpaceX to Land on the Moon D.Two Unmanned Missions of Circling around the Moon 解析:标题归纳题。通读全文可知,本文属于新闻报道,文 章第一段的第一句“US private rocket company SpaceX has
announced that two private citizens have paid to be sent around the Moon.”为文章的主旨句。据此可以判断,A项为最 佳文章标题。 答案:A

B

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308

7分钟

★★★★

(2017·青岛调研)A little girl's quick thinking saved the lives of

her mother and brother after the mom drove their car down an embankment (筑堤), causing injuries to both herself and her baby

son. On June 8, Lexi Shymanski's mother fell asleep at the wheel

outside the mountainous town of Jasper, Canada, sending her car rushing 12 meters down a roadside embankment before it came to

rest with its front wheels up against a tree and its back wheels up in

the air.

After she awoke to the cries of her 10-week-old brother, Peter, little Lexi knew she had to act.Undoing her seat belt, the five-year-old was able to jump out of the car, climb up the steep embankment and stop a driver for help.These actions may be the only reason her mother and brother are still alive.“I can only remember one or two times when she got herself out of the safety belt before the accident,” Lexi's mother Angela told the reporters.“It's amazing and we're just so glad she did that.”

Two men stopped to help.Luckily one was a paramedic (护理 人员) who knew not to move Angela.She had broken her back in two places, and even the slightest push could have left her paralyzed (瘫痪的).
They were taken to a local hospital before being sent to a big one in Edmonton.Lexi suffered only minor injuries, but both baby Peter and Angela had to undergo surgery (手术).They are reportedly recovering well, and the family has received over $19,000 through GoFundMe to cover medical costs.

Now back at home, Angela says her daughter seems extremely happy, not knowing how much her effort helped save her families' lives.“She just doesn't know what it means,” Angela says.“She's just five years old and so happy to be home and playing with her dog and ducks.”

语篇解读:本文是一篇新闻报道。机智勇敢的5岁小姑娘莱克 茜挽救了妈妈和弟弟的生命。 5.Thanks to the paramedic, Angela ________.
A.was treated well in hospital B.suffered only slight injuries C.didn't get further injuries to her back D.managed to free Lexi from her seat belt 解析:细节理解题。根据文章第四段的内容可知,幸好 那名护理人员懂得急救知识,没有挪动安杰拉,才让她 没有受到第二次伤害。 答案:C

6.What amazed Angela most was that ________. A.Lexi wasn't injured in the accident B.Lexi freed herself from the safety belt C.her car was undamaged in the accident D.GoFundMe helped them cover medical costs 解析:细节理解题。根据文章第三段中安杰拉所讲的话可知, 在她的记忆中,莱克茜只有一两次解开过安全带,但是她却在 车祸发生后解开安全带爬出车外求救,这让她非常惊讶。 答案:B

7.What can be used as the best title of the passage? A.A careless mother caused a terrible car accident B.What could a 5-year-old girl do in a car accident? C.A 5-year-old girl saved her family in a car accident D.GoFundMe helped a family recover after a car accident 解析:标题归纳题。根据文章内容可知本文主要介绍了 机智勇敢的5岁小姑娘莱克茜挽救妈妈和弟弟的故事,由 此可知C项作为文章标题最佳。
答案:C

8.The passage is probably ________.

A.a news story

B.a lab report

C.a letter of thanks

D.a personal diary

解析:推理判断题。本文介绍了一个5岁的小姑娘莱克茜在

车祸发生后挽救妈妈和弟弟的故事,并且还跟踪报道了三

人的后期恢复以及慈善机构的捐款事项,由此可知本文最

有可能是一篇新闻故事。

答案:A

C

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说明文

208

6分钟

(2017·贵州省普通高等学校招生适应性考试)

押题指数 ★★★★

A record of 6.15 million trips was made by Chinese

mainland tourists to overseas destinations during the seven-day

Spring Festival holiday, which ended on Thursday, according

to the China National Tourism Administration.That is an increase of 7 percent compared with 2016's Spring

Festival.About 374,000 trips were organized by travel agencies, a 2.5 percent increase.

The administration also reported growth from individual and high-end (高端的) travelers and said that in addition to top and coastal cities, inland cities — such as those in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region — became important source markets.With many Chinese now traveling abroad for Spring Festival, their choice of destinations has expanded along with their growing interest in foreign cultures and services.

“Chinese tourists are increasingly willing to experience local cultures and services, including staying in private homes, appreciating plants and watching monkeys in hot springs,” Li Xuejing, the agency's marketing manager, said.
A Chinese tourist surnamed Guo, who was vacationing on an island in the Philippines, said: “I now pay more attention to relaxation and enjoyment during the holidays instead of shopping or choosing gifts for relatives.”
Another choice is Britain.Though the devaluation (货币贬值) of the pound is a factor, Britain's rich history and famous education tradition have caught the eye of Chinese.

语篇解读:本文是一篇新闻报道。国家旅游局统计,在2017

年春节期间去海外旅游的游客人数比2016年同期有所上涨。

文章分析了这一现象的原因。

9.How many trips were made to foreign countries during

the Golden Week of this Spring Festival holiday?

A.6,150,000.

B.2,500,000.

C.7,000,000.

D.374,000.

解析:细节理解题。根据第一段的第一句可知,在2017年春

节黄金周期间,中国大陆赴海外旅游的人次达到6 150 000,

故A项正确。 答案:A

10.What can we learn about some inland cities in Guangxi? A.They're reported to have become important
attractions. B.They're famous for all kinds of plants and monkeys. C.They have the best hot spring in the world. D.They belong to coastal source markets. 解析:细节理解题。根据第二段第一句中的“in addition
to top and coastal cities, inland cities — such as those in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region — became important source markets”可知,广西壮族自治区的许多 城市也成了重要的旅游目的地,故A项正确。 答案:A

11.What would Miss Guo do on her vacation according to the text? A.Go shopping for gifts. B.Study foreign cultures. C.Relax and enjoy herself. D.Chat with her relatives. 解析:细节理解题。根据第四段的“I now pay more attention to relaxation and enjoyment during the holidays instead of shopping or choosing gifts for relatives.”可知,这位姓郭的游 客认为现在她的旅游目的是放松和享受而不是购物或为亲人 挑选礼物;据此可知,她在旅游期间会放松和享受。
答案:C

12.Where does the text probably come from?

A.A guide book.

B.A newspaper.

C.A scientific magazine. D.An advertisement.

解析:文章出处题。通读全文可知,第一段的第一句为文

章主题句;结合下文内容可知,本文属于新闻报道,符合

新闻报道文体的结构特征:先写明报道主题,接着分析原

因。故B项正确。 答案:B

文体 说明文

词数 336

D
建议用时 8分钟

实际用时 押题指数 ★★★★★

(2018届高三·山西省八校第一次联考)

Illegally traded endangered species that escape, forming

secondary populations, offer hope to their long-term survival, a study suggests.“This first came to my attention when I read a

news story about the seizure of an illegal shipment of 23 yellow-crested cockatoos (小葵花凤头鹦鹉),” said Luke

Gibson, a college teacher.He learned that the species was

critically endangered, which surprised him.

This encouraged Dr. Gibson and his colleague to investigate (调查) how a critically endangered species had become self-sustaining outside of its natural range.They discovered 49 cases of a globally threatened species becoming established as a separate population, including the yellow-crested cockatoo in their city.

“This is a species which is primarily threatened by wildlife trade,” he told BBC News.“Poachers (偷猎者) go out into the forest in its native range in eastern Indonesia and capture the birds and then ship them off, usually up to our city where there is a strong demand for pet birds.This is what has fueled the decline of this species in its native range. But it's really interesting because that same cause also had another effect: some of the people who were keeping this species here accidentally or intentionally released them.” As a result of enough of the birds being set free, it allowed a new self-sustaining population to be established in this city.

The government of Dr.Gibson's city has made it illegal to capture the species, even though it is a non-native species.Because the city is affluent and relatively well educated, the cases of people breaking the law are extremely rare, explained Dr.Gibson.Unlike in its native range in Indonesia where capturing birds forms a major source of income.

However, there can be downsides (缺点) to the newly established population of endangered species, such as a limited genetic pool, and suffering from novel diseases.It did also present a possible “very interesting” opportunity for conservationists, Dr.Gibson suggested.This would involve “harvesting” some of the newly established secondary population, which may provide a way to help slow global biodiversity loss.

语篇解读:本文是一篇新闻报道。濒临灭绝的小葵花凤头鹦鹉 遭非法交易,但幸运地被饲养这一物种的一些人释放,因此得 以生存繁衍,形成次生种群,这也为自然环境保护主义者提供 了一种缓解生物多样性丧失的途径。
13.What was beyond Gibson's expectations according to the first paragraph? A.The high rate of wildlife trade. B.The preciousness of the birds. C.The fact that the birds nearly disappear. D.The news that the birds were poached.

解析:细节理解题。根据第一段中的“He learned that the species was critically endangered, which surprised him.”可知, 卢克·吉布森博士因获知小葵花凤头鹦鹉是严重濒危物种而感到 惊讶。 答案:C

14.What happened unexpectedly when the birds were shipped abroad? A.They formed a separate population. B.They were kept as pet birds. C.They were traded illegally. D.They were killed for research. 解析:细节理解题。根据第三段中的“But it's really interesting ... a new self-sustaining ...”可知,这些海运过来 的鹦鹉被一些养鸟人释放了,最终使得它们形成一个新的自 给自足的独立的群体,故选A。 答案:A

15.Which can replace the underlined word “affluent”?

A.Peace-loving.

B.Rich.

C.Free.

D.Environment-friendly.

解析:词义猜测题。根据画线词后的“and relatively well

educated, the cases of people breaking the law are extremely rare”及“Unlike in its native range in Indonesia where

capturing birds forms a major source of income.”可知,画

线词意为“富裕的”。故选B。 答案:B

16.For what purpose did the author write the passage? A.To appeal to everyone to stop the wildlife trade. B.To explain the challenge the wild birds are facing. C.To introduce a creative approach to wildlife conservation. D.To raise people's awareness of protecting endangered species.

解析:写作意图题。根据文章内容尤其是第一段的 “Illegally traded endangered species that escape, forming secondary populations, offer hope to their long-term survival, a study suggests.”及最后一段的“It did also present a possible ‘very interesting’ opportunity for conservationists ...which may provide a way to help slow global biodiversity loss.”可知,濒临灭绝的小葵花凤头鹦 鹉由于社会环境的干预,形成了次生种群,而这可能会为 保护野生动物提供一种创造性的方法。 答案:C

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谁会和你牵手相伴一生,



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