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高三生物复习要点总结考试说明版_图文

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is important. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest faithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party members a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" pro blem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long-term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn -lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

高三生物复习要点总结考试说明版
自由水:良好溶剂,有利于物质运输和化学反应的进行 1、 结合水:细胞结构组成部分 自由水越多,新陈代谢越强;结合水越多,抗逆性越强,自由水和结合水可 相互转化 组成成分:Mg→组成叶绿素、Fe→血红蛋白、P、Ca、I 维持细胞形态和功能:生理盐水 1、无机盐功能 生命活动:哺乳动物血液中钙盐太低,就会出现抽搐 维持细胞渗透压和酸碱平衡: 浓度越高→渗透压越高 单糖: 葡萄糖、核糖、脱氧核糖 (单糖动植物都有) 植物二糖:蔗糖、麦芽糖; 动物二糖:乳糖 植物多糖:纤维素、淀粉; 动物多糖:糖元(肝糖元、肌糖元) 脂肪:储能 2、脂质分类 类脂:磷脂 膜结构基本骨架 固醇类:胆固醇、性激素、VD 基本组成单位:氨基酸 写出通式 肽键: -CO-NH- 蛋白质多样性的原因:种类、数量、排列顺序、空间结构 3、蛋白质结构 组成成分:肌肉 催化作用:酶 蛋白质功能 运输作用:载体、血红蛋白 调节作用:蛋白质类激素(生长激素、胰岛素、促激素) 免疫作用:抗体 肽键个数=氨基酸个数(N)-肽链条数(M) 相关计算 蛋白质分子量=N*a-18*(N-M) 基因(DNA)中碱基:mRNA 中碱基:氨基酸个数=6:3:1 几条肽链至少几个氨基和几个羧基(至少两头有) 3、写出核酸基本组成单位核苷酸的连接方式 五碳糖 A、T、G、C 脱氧核苷酸→DNA 磷酸 核苷酸 含 N 碱基 A、U、G、C 核糖核苷酸→RNA 3、DNA 功能 遗传信息的传递 → 复制 遗传信息的表达 → 指导蛋白质的合成 (转录和翻译) 转 录 翻 译 DNA RNA 蛋白质 (6:3:1) 2、糖的分类
解 旋 三种 RNA 参与

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of cons ciousne ss: one i s to establish a n integrated awar enes s. "Lear ning" and "do" w hat car isTw o-w heel, bird wi ngs, need t o go ha nd i n ha nd, one e nd can be negl ected. Communist theoretici an a nd man. Only by cl osely combi ning theory and pra ctice toget he r in order to tr uly realize their value. "Learni ng" is the Foundati on, the Foundation i s not str ong, shaki ng; " "Is the key to net t o net thous ands of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the ba sis, goi ng to "do" the key grip, s o that the "learning" and "doi ng" back to sta ndar d, s o that t he maj ority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutri ents, i n the "doing" practi ce party's pur poses. Se cond, t o establi sh a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu draw n, entirely different, but the organic unity of the w hole . "Two" learni ng education, w e need to ex plore i ntegrating "learni ng" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room instruction,

"do" into a m onotone for doing. Should expl oration "learn" in t he has "do", "do" in t he has "learn" of education and practice of carrie r, makes ge neral grass -roots member s ca n in "lear n" in t he ha s "do" of achi evements sense, i n "do" i n the has "lear n" of get sense, real makes party of theory brain i nto heart, put for pe opl e servi ce conce pt outside of Yu s ha ped. Third, to a dhere to long-term t he aware ness . Style constructi on on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch t he l ong -term. "Two" study and educati on, by no means, as sault -style wi nd-s port, but the recurrent e ducation wi thin the party. In rece nt years, t he party's mass li ne e ducation practi ce a nd "three -thre e" spe cial e ducation in gras s-r oots bor ne ri ch fruits , vast numbers of party member s and ca dres wit hstood t he baptism of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on l onger hol d long-term, t o establ ish and per fect the effective mechani sm of the education, focusi ng on the creati on of long -term education, strive to make the vast num ber of party member s to maintai n their va nguard Col or, mai ntain the party's a dvanced nature a nd purity. Aw arene ss-rai sing, antennas a nd atmosphere – a dis cus sion on how leadi ng ca dres of party members "two" current, "two" activity i s in full swing up a nd dow n the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is bot h a bar ometer and im petus. The "two" meaning e nough dee p, is to determine t he party cadres can re solve t o study hard first. In the "two" in the process , some cadres of himself, standing l ong, high a warene ss, that Constitut i on Party r ules is simpl e, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadre s thi nk speak serie s has not hing to do with the grass-r oots work, water busi nes s learni ng serie s of s pee ches see n as wi ndow dre ssing . These "lazy, cas ual, and decadent" idea s learni ng lack s motivation, a seri ous impedime nt to "two" effect. John Stuart Mill once sai d, only a ba sic eleme nt of human thoug ht pattern s change dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is important. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest faithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party members a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long-term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn -lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

非细胞生物:病毒 代表:蓝藻、细菌、放线菌、支原体、衣原体 4、生物 原核生物 细胞壁:肽聚糖 细胞器:只有核糖体,无其他复杂细胞器 细胞生物 核区:无成型的细胞核 代表:除蓝藻之外的植物,动物(含原生动物) 真核生物 真菌(单细胞酵母菌、霉菌、大型真菌) 原核生物无成型的细胞核(无核膜核仁)→有 DNA 不与蛋白质结合→无染色体→不能 进行有丝分裂,也不进行减数分裂→不遵循三大规律→只有基因突变无其他变异 组成成分:蛋白质、磷脂、糖蛋白(识别、信息传递等) 结构特点:流动性 体现:动物细胞膜内陷,受精作用,细胞工程,内 吞外排 5、细胞膜 功能特点:选择透过性(取决于蛋白质) 体现:海水淡化、污水净化 出入 C 膜: 自由扩散、协助扩散、主动运输、胞吞、胞吐 5 、粗面内质网上的核糖体合成 内质网运输加工 高尔基体加工 成熟蛋白质 胞外 6、细胞器(参照课本细胞图) 结构特点 双层膜结 构 单层膜结 构 细胞器 叶绿体 线粒体 内质网 高尔基体 液 泡 核糖体 无膜结构 中心体 细胞功能 光合作用 有氧呼吸 运输、加工 加工、分泌 水分、颜色 蛋白质合成 有丝分裂有 关 注意问题 色素、酶分布、少量 DNA/RNA 酶分布、少量 DNA/RNA 粗面、滑面 动植物中功能不同 色素、有机酸 rRNA、蛋白质

能产生水细胞器:叶绿体、线粒体、核糖体 能产生 ATP 的结构:叶绿体、线粒体、细胞质基质 高等植物根中无中心体,无叶绿体 7、连续有丝分裂有细胞周期的细胞:分生区、形成层、受精卵、癌细胞、部分干细胞

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he "learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce part y's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The "two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

2

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is im portant. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest f aithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party mem bers a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long -term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

分裂间期:时间长、起点,染色体复制 前期:两现,两失 最明显的变化:出现染色体 8、有丝分裂 分裂期 中期:着丝点整齐排列在赤道板上,观察的最佳时期 后期:着丝点分裂,成为子染色体,移向两极;数目加倍 末期:与前期相反 主要特征:染色体复制和平均分配 动植物细胞有丝分裂的区别 前期: 纺锤体的形成方式不同 (中心体)中心体在间期复 制,前期分开 末期:细胞质的分裂方式不同 (高尔基体) 持久性:贯穿整个生命过程,胚胎时期达到最大限度 9、细胞分化 不可逆转:与组织培养的脱分化再分化不矛盾 遗传物质不改变 (选择性表达) 相同细胞的后代在形态、结构、生理功能上发生稳定性差异的过程。 细胞分化的根本原因:基因选择表达的结果 10.细胞全能性:细胞的全能性是指已经分化的细胞,仍然具有发育成完整个体的潜能。 11.细胞的凋亡:由基因所决定的细胞自动结束生命的过程,就叫细胞凋亡。 细胞坏死:在种种不利因素影响下,由于细胞正常代谢活动受损或中断引起的细胞 损伤和死亡。 细胞衰老:多细胞生物,细胞的衰老和死亡与个体的衰老和死亡不能等同。但个体的 衰老过程是组成个体的细胞普遍衰老的过程 水分减少 体积减小 细胞萎缩 代谢变慢 酶活性降低 衰老细胞特征 白头发

色素逐渐积累 老年斑 细胞内呼吸速率减慢,细胞核体积增大,染色质收缩,染色加深 细胞膜通透性改变 ,物质运输功能降低

12.细胞癌变:有的细胞受到致癌因子的作用,细胞中遗传物质发生变化,就变成不受 机体控制的、连续进行分裂的恶性增殖细胞,这种细胞就是癌细胞。 致癌因子:物理致癌因子、化学致癌因子、病毒致癌因子 癌变的根本原因:环境中的致癌因子会损伤细胞中的 DNA 分子,使原癌基因和抑癌 基因发生突变,导致正常细胞的生长和分裂失控而变成癌细胞。 癌细胞能无限增殖 癌细胞特点 癌细胞形态结构发生变化 癌细胞表面发生变化(糖蛋白减少,癌细胞间粘着性降低,易在体内 分散和转移)

13、物质进出细胞膜的方式

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he " learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce party's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different , but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The " two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

3

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is important. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest faithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party members a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long-term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn -lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

运输方 式 自由扩 散 主动运 输 协助扩 散

运输方向 高浓度到低浓 度 低浓度到高浓 度 高浓度到低浓 度

是否需要载 体 否 是 是

是否消耗能量 否 是 否

示例 水、气体、脂类(因为细胞膜的 主要成分是脂质,如甘油) 几乎所有离子、氨基酸、葡萄糖 等 葡萄糖进红细胞

14.酶的特性和作用 酶是活细胞产生的一类具有生物催化作用的有机物,绝大多数是蛋白质,少数是 RNA。 酶具有高效性,专一性,酶需要适宜的条件,过酸、过碱和高温,使酶的分子结构遭到 破坏而失去活性。 15、 ATP 结构简式:A—P~P~P 光合作用光反应(不用于其他活动) ATP 中能量来源 呼吸作用(细胞质基质、线粒体) (有氧、无氧)

条件:有氧气参与 场所:细胞质基质和线粒体 有氧呼吸 C6H12O6 2 丙酮酸 CH3COCOOH + 4 [H] + 能量 6CO2+20[H]+能量 12H2O + 能量(多)

过程 2CH3COCOOH+6H2O 16、细胞呼吸 24[H]+6O2 [H]、O2 作用? 条件:缺氧情况下 场所:细胞质基质 无氧呼吸 过程 C6H12O6

2C3H6O3+能量

马铃薯块茎、甜菜根、玉米胚、骨骼肌、乳酸菌 C6H12O6 2CO2+2C2H5OH+能量

水淹植物、酵母菌 细胞呼吸的实质:分解有机物(彻底或不彻底) ,释放能量 细胞呼吸意义:供能 水果、蔬菜保鲜:三低:低温、低氧、低水 酸菜密封 酿酒先通气后密封

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he "learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce part y's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The "two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

4

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is im portant. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest f aithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party mem bers a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long -term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

吐鲁番葡萄甜的原因:昼夜温差大 不消耗 O2,释放 CO2 只进行无氧呼吸 酒精量等于 CO2 量 只进行无氧呼吸 CO2 释放量等于 O2 的吸收量 只进行有氧呼吸 CO2 释放量大于 O2 的吸收量 既有氧呼吸又无氧呼吸;多余 CO2 来自无氧呼吸 酒精量小于 CO2 量 既有氧呼吸,又无氧呼吸;多余的 CO2 来自有有氧呼吸

17、光合作用

胡萝卜素:橙黄色 类胡萝卜素 叶黄素:黄色 色素 叶绿素 a:蓝绿色 叶绿素 叶绿素 b:黄绿色 物质变化 水的光解 O2 全来自水 光反应 ATP 的形成 光合作用过程 能量变化:光能→电能→活跃的化学性 暗反应 能量变化:活跃的化学能→稳定化学能 物质变化 CO2 的固定:C5+CO2→2C3 CO2 的还原 光合作用场所 光反应在叶绿体基粒 暗反应在叶绿体基质 C3、C5 的变化规律 CO2 减少时 C3 ↘ C5 ↗ 光照变弱时 C3 ↗ C5 ↘ 净光合强度=真光合强度-呼吸消耗 光照、温度 影响光合作用的因素 水分、CO2 矿质元素

a—H2O b—O2 c—[H] d—ATP e—ADP+Pi f—CO2 g—C3 h—(CH2O) i—C5 A 是光反应阶段,场所是叶绿体的囊状结构薄膜上,光反应的产物有 O2、[H]、ATP,提 供给暗反应的是[H]、ATP。把光能转化为储存在 ATP 中的不稳定的化学能;B 是暗反应 阶段,场所是叶绿体的基质中,ATP 中不稳定的化学能转化为稳定的化学能储存在糖类 中。

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he " learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce party's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different , but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The " two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

5

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is important. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest faithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party members a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long-term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn -lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

自养需氧型:绿色植物、硝化细菌、蓝藻 自养厌氧型:红硫细菌、绿硫细菌 18、 异养需氧型:除体内寄生虫外的动物、真菌、好氧细菌、菟丝子 异养厌氧型:寄生虫、厌氧菌(乳酸菌、破伤风杆菌、产甲烷杆菌等) 兼性厌氧型:酵母菌 兼性异养型:绿眼虫 做题时注意“养”和“氧”的区别 . 自养型光合作用的绿色植物化能合成作用的细菌 新 同化作用类型 异养型——人类、动物、细菌、真菌 陈 需氧型(有氧呼吸型)绝大多数生物和人类 代 异化作用类型 厌氧型(无氧呼吸型)体内寄生虫、乳酸菌、破伤风杆菌 谢 酵母菌——兼性厌氧型 19.孟德尔揭示的两大遗传规律是指基因的分离定律和基因的自由组合定律 19.一种生物的同一种性状的不同表现类型叫做相对性状。 19.孟德尔把杂种子一代中显现出来的性状叫做显性性状,未显现出来的性状叫做隐性 性状。 19.在杂种后代中,同时出现显性性状和隐性性状的现象,在遗传学上叫做性状分离。 19.控制显性性状(如豌豆的高茎)的基因是显性基因,控制隐性性状(如豌豆的矮茎) 的基因叫做隐性基因。 19.由相同基因的配子结合成的合子发育成的个体叫做纯合子,由不同基因的配子结合 成的合子发育成的个体叫做杂合子。纯合子能稳定遗传,杂合子不能稳定遗传,它的自 交后代还会发生性状的分离。 19.测交就是让 F1 与隐性纯合子杂交,这个方法可以用来测定 F1 的基因组合。 19.在遗传学上,把位于一对同源染色体的相同位置上,控制着相对性状的基因叫做等 位基因。 19. (23)在遗传学上,把生物个体表现出来的性状叫做表现型,把与表现型有关的基因 组成叫做基因型。表现型相同,基因型 不一定(一定/不一定)相同,在不同环境条件

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he "learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce part y's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The "two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

6

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is im portant. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest f aithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party mem bers a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long -term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

下基因型相同的个体, 表现型也不一定 一定/不一定) 相同。 因此, 表现型是基因型与 环 境相互作用的结果。 19. 番茄茎的有毛(H)对无毛(h)为显性,请写出纯种有毛番茄与纯种无毛番茄杂交的 遗传图解(写到 F2,写出配子) 有毛 无毛 P: HH ×hh 配子 H h

F1 有毛 Hh × Hh 有毛 配子 H F2 h H h

HH Hh Hh hh 有毛 有毛 无毛 F2 基因型 HH:Hh:hh=1:2:1, 表现型 有毛:无毛=3:1 19.基因的分离定律 基因分离定律的实质是:在杂合子的细胞中,位于一对同源染色体上的等位基因,具有 一定的独立性,生物体进行减数分裂形成配子时,等位基因会随着同源染色体的分开而 分离,分别进入到两个配子中,独立的随配子遗传给后代 20.基因的自由组合定律 基因自由组合定律的实质,位于非同源染色体上的非等位基因的分离或组合式互不干扰 的,在进行减数分裂形成配子的过程中,同源染色体上的等位基因彼此分离,同时非同 源染色体上的非等位基因自由组合。 21.性别决定和伴性遗传 21.在男性体细胞中, 有 22 对染色体的形态与女性是相同的, 这些染色体叫做常染色体, 有一对染色体的形态与女性的有显著差别,这对染色体对人的性别起着决定作用叫做性 染色体。 21.人的性别决定属于 XY 型,即雄性的性染色体为 XY。鸡的性别决定方式和人类、果蝇 正好相反为 ZW 型,即雄性为 ZZ。 21.有些性状的遗传常常与性别相关联,这种现象就是伴性遗传。 21.男性的红绿色盲基因只能从母亲那里传来, 以后只能传给他的女儿, 这在遗传学上叫 做交叉遗传。 22、遗传系谱图的分析:细胞质遗传—>伴 Y—>伴 X(X 显看男患者,X 隐看女患者)—> 常染色体 计算:A、求亲代产生配子种类及概率 B、求子代基因型和表现型种类 C、求某种基因型或表现型在后代出现概率 D、知道子代表现型推亲代情况 会写遗传图解(基因型,表现型,符号,配子,比例)

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he " learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce party's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different , but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The " two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

7

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is important. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest faithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party members a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long-term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn -lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

常隐:白化、苯丙、先天聋哑 单基因遗传病 常显:多指、并指、软骨发育不全 伴 X 隐性:血友、色盲、进行性肌营养不良 22、人类遗传病 伴 X 显性:抗 VD 佝偻病 多基因遗传病 唇裂、无脑儿、原发性高血压、青少年型糖尿病 特点: (1)多对(2)发病高(3)聚集(4)环境 常染色体变异:5 号缺失→猫叫综合征 染色体病 21 多了一条→先天性愚型 性染色体变异:性腺发育不良 23.基因、环境因素与性状的关系 见 19.(23) 24、整体把握减数分裂 (复制一次,分裂两次) ↓有丝分裂获得 间期:1 精原细胞:染色体复制 略 增 I 前:联会、四分体 注意交叉互换 减 大 I 中:四分体在中央 数 减 I :1 初级精母细胞 分 联会 I 后:同源染色体分开,非同源染色体自由组合 裂 四分体 I 末:1→2 个 数目减半 同源染色体分开 非同源染色体自由组合 II 前:乱 减 II:2 次级精母细胞 II 中:着丝点中央 类似 II 后: 着丝点分裂 单体分开进入两子细胞 数目加倍 有丝分裂 II 末:2→4 4 个精细胞 ↓变形 4 个精子 1 个四分体=1 对同源染色体=4 个染色单体=4 个 DNA 精子和卵细胞形成的区别 (是否均等、变形、生殖细胞数 ) 两头大小 一个精原细胞(初级精母细胞)产生 4 个两种精子 两两相同 一个卵原细胞(次级精母细胞、次级卵母细胞)产生 1 个 1 种精子或卵细胞 n 这种生物最多可产生 2 种精子或卵细胞 n 等位基因(同源染色体)对数

24、判断细胞分裂方式、时期 (1)染色体等大时,先看奇偶数(着丝点分裂导致的只看一半或看前一个时期) 奇数 减数第二次分裂 (2)再看有无同源染色体 无同源染色体 减数第二次分裂 (3)最后看是否联会形成四分体以及同源染色体分离 存在 减数第一次分裂 不存在 有丝分裂

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he "learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce part y's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The "two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

8

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is im portant. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest f aithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party mem bers a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long -term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

25.配子的形成: 一个精原细胞经过一次减数分裂形成四个精细胞,经过变形形成四个精子。精子是雄配 子。 一个卵原细胞经过一次减数分裂形成一个卵细胞和三个极体。卵细胞是雌配子。 26.受精作用 精子和卵细胞融合成为受精卵的过程叫做受精作用。 27.遗传物质的证据 27.肺炎双球菌的转化试验证明了 DNA 是遗传物质,而蛋白质不是遗传物质。 27.下图是噬菌体侵染细菌示意图,请回答下列问题: (1)图中 D 表明噬菌体侵染细菌时,留在细菌外的是蛋白质外壳,注入细菌体内的物质是 DNA。噬菌体侵染细菌并产生子代病毒的过程为:BDAEC 35 32 (2) 噬菌体侵染细菌试验中,用 S 标记噬菌体的蛋白质_, 用 P 标记噬菌体的 DNA. (3)噬菌体侵染细菌实验得出了 DNA 是遗传物质的结论。

27.有些病毒不含有 DNA,只含有蛋白质和 RNA,如烟草花叶病毒,在这些病毒中,RNA 是遗传物质。 (烟草花叶病毒的感染和重建实验) 27.DNA 是主要的遗传物质。 28.DNA 的结构 ? 1953 年,沃森和克里克共同提出了 DNA 分子的双 螺旋结构模型。 ? DNA 分子的基本单位是脱氧核苷酸, 共有四种分 别是腺嘌呤脱氧核苷酸、鸟嘌呤脱氧核苷酸、胸 腺嘧啶脱氧核苷酸、胞嘧啶脱氧核苷酸。 ? 组成脱氧核苷酸的碱基有四种: 。 ? RNA 分子的基本单位是核糖核苷酸, 共有四种分 别是腺嘌呤核糖核苷酸、鸟嘌呤核糖核苷酸、胸 腺嘧啶核糖核苷酸、尿嘧啶核糖核苷酸_。 ? 组成核酸的碱基有五种:腺嘌呤、鸟嘌呤、胸腺 嘧啶、尿嘧啶、胞嘧啶。 ? DNA 分子是有 2 条链组成的,这两条链按反向平 行方式盘旋成双螺旋结构,DNA 分子上的碱基通 过氢键连接成碱基对,并且碱基的配对遵循碱基 互补配对原则, A 与 T 配对, C 与 G 配对。

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he " learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce party's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different , but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The " two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

9

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is important. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest faithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party members a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long-term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn -lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

?

碱基对的排列顺序的千变万化,构成了 DNA 分子的多样性。 时间:间期 (减数第一次分裂间期,或有丝分裂间期) 条件:原料、酶、能量、模板+适宜温度和 PH 值 特点:半保留复制(注意同位素标记) RNA 蛋白质

29、DNA 复制

30、中心法则: DNA

不遗传的变异 :由环境引起 范围:碱基对 31、变异 基因突变 时间:间期 可遗传 特点:频率低,有害,多方向性 的变异 基因重组 减数分裂时会有 转基因也算 染色体变异 结构(缺失,重组,倒位,易位) 数目 个别染色体的增加减少,21 三体,45,X 染色体成倍增加减少,单倍体,多倍体 单倍体:体细胞有正常物种的一半 发育 花药离体培养 配子 单倍体 32、理解会用 染色体组:一组非同源染色体 诱变育种——基因突变 杂交育种(杂交、自交、再自交)——基因重组 单倍体育种(花药离体培养,秋水仙素)——染色体变异 多倍体育种(三倍体无子西瓜)——染色体变异 转基因育种(基因工程)——基因重组 细胞工程育种(白菜,甘蓝)——染色体变异

34、育种方式

35.转基因生物及其安全性 生物的进化 36.生物进化理论 ? 达尔文把在生存斗争中,适者生存、不适者被淘汰的过程叫做自然选择。 ? 现代生物进化理论的基本观点是:种群是生物进化的基本单位,生物进化的实质 在于种群基因频率的改变。突变和基因重组、自然选择及隔离是物种形成过程的 三个基本环节,通过它们的综合作用,种群产生分化,最终导致新物种的形成。 在这个过程中,突变和基因重组产生生物进化的原材料,自然选择使种群的基因 频率定向改变并决定生物进化的方向,隔离是新物种形成的基本条件。 ? 种群是指生活在同一地点的同种生物的一个群体。 ? 一个种群的全部个体所含有的全部基因叫做这个种群的基因库。 ? 某种基因在某各种群中出现的比例,叫做基因频率。 ? 从某个种群中随机抽出 100 个个体,基因型为 AA、Aa、aa 的个体分别是 30、60 和 10 个,则 A 基因的频率为 60%,a 基因的频率为 40% ? 基因突变和染色体变异常统称为突变。

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he "learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce part y's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The "two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

10

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is im portant. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest f aithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party mem bers a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long -term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

?

突变的有利还是有害往往取决于生物生存的环境。

37.物种形成 ? 物种是指分布在一定的自然区域,具有一定的形态结构和生理功能,而且在自然 状态下能够相互交配和繁殖,并能产生出可育后代的一群生物个体。 ? 隔离就是指不同种群间的个体,在自然状态下基因不能自由交流的现象。 ? 地理隔离是指分布在不同自然区域的种群,由于高山、河流沙漠等地理上的障碍, 使彼此间无法相遇而不能交配。 ? 生殖隔离是指种群间的个体不能自由交配,或者交配后不能产生可育后代。 ? 经过长期的地理隔离而达到生殖隔离是一种比较常见的物种形成的方式。 38.进化与生物多样性的形成 生物进化的实质在于种群基因频率的改变。 生物多样性主要包括三个层次的内容:基因多样性、物种多样性、生态系统多样性。 生物多样性的形成经历了漫长的进化历程:不同物种之间(猎豹与斑马) 、生物与无机环 境之间(原始大气没有氧气最初的生物都是厌氧的,光合生物出现使得大气中有了氧气 为好养生物的出现创造了条件)在相互影响中不断进化和发展,这就是共同进化。 植物激素调节 39、生命活动调节 动物神经调节和体液调节 免疫调节 感受光刺激的部位在尖端 向光弯曲的部位在尖端下面一段 有生长素且分布均匀,胚芽鞘直立生长; 有生长素但分布不均匀,胚芽鞘弯曲 39、 生长 向光弯曲生长原因: 单侧光引起生长素分布不均匀→背光侧多→生长快→向光弯曲 极性运输:从形态学上端运到下端,不能倒运 横向运输:尖端(受单侧光、重力的影响) 促进长生长 (伸长生长,不是分裂)细胞分裂素管分裂 39、生长素的作用 促进扦插枝条生根 防止落花落果 促进果实发育 (不是成熟,成熟是乙烯) 无籽蕃茄:花蕊期去掉雄蕊,用适宜浓度的生长素类似物涂抹柱头,不能遗传 无籽西瓜:原理不同,染色体变异 无籽西瓜能遗传 香蕉三倍体,无籽,靠营养生殖 是否授粉→有无种子→能否产生生长素→果实能否发育 39、生长素作用双重性(低浓度促进,高浓度抑制甚至杀死植物)

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he " learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce party's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different , but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The " two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

11

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is important. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest faithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party members a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long-term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn -lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

顶端优势 :棉花、果树 灭草剂 (双子叶植物敏感)
-4

不同器官:根(10

-10

)>芽(10 )>茎(10

-8

) 根的向地性 (近地侧抑制, 背地侧促进) 、根的背光性 (背光侧抑制, 靠光侧促进) 茎的背地性(近地侧促进快,背地侧促进慢,但都促进) 茎的向光性(背光侧促进快,靠光侧促进慢,但都促进)

41.其他植物激素的生理作用 赤霉素:合成部位——主要是未成熟的种子、幼根和幼芽 主要作用——促进细胞伸长,从而引起植株增高;促进种子萌发和果实发育 细胞分裂素:合成部位——主要是根尖 主要作用——促进细胞分裂。 脱落酸:合成部位——根冠、萎蔫的叶片 主要作用——抑制细胞分裂,促进叶和果实的衰老和脱落。 乙烯:合成部位——植物体各个部位。 主要作用——促进果实成熟。 41.植物生长调节剂及应用 植物激素的应用 (1)有利:应用的具体事例 ? 生长素类似物促进扦插的枝条 生根 ? 利用生长素类似物处理 未受粉 的番茄雌蕊形成无籽番茄 ? 利用 2,4-D 杀除 双子叶 植物杂草 ? 利用 乙烯 催熟水果 (2)有害:可以延长马铃薯、大蒜、洋葱储藏期的 青鲜素 就有可能有致癌作用。

细胞内液 42、体液

组织液 淋巴

细胞外液(内环境): 血浆

43、反射弧:感受器→传入神经→神经中枢→传出神经→效应器(还包括肌肉和腺体) 神经纤维上 双向传导 局部电流 静息时外正内负 43、兴奋传导 神经元之间(突触传导) 单向传递 靠递质(如乙酰胆碱) 突触小泡→ 突触前膜→突触间隙→ 突触后膜(有受体)→产生兴奋或抑制 单向传导就是从一个神经元轴突传向下一个神经元的树突或细胞体

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he "learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce part y's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The "two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

12

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is im portant. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest f aithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party mem bers a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long -term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

44.人脑各部分的功能

人类大脑皮层第一运动区与躯体各部分的 关系示意图

45、体液调节中的调节因素是化学物质:激素、CO2(呼吸中枢有效刺) 、H 、组织胺(不 是激素)等 甲状腺激素少:食欲不振、身体臃肿、行动呆苯迟缓、精神萎靡、代谢心跳减慢、体温 偏低 甲亢(甲状腺激素多) :烦躁不安,情绪紧张;另外小动物发育停止 反馈调节: 下丘脑→促...激素释放激素→垂体→促…激素→腺体→激素→反过来影响下 丘脑和垂体 激素间作用:协同作用 拮抗作用 45. 部位 下丘脑 激素名称 促…激素 释放激素 化学本质 蛋白质 生理作用 促进垂体释放相应的激素

+

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he " learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce party's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different , but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The " two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

13

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is important. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest faithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party members a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long-term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn -lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

抗利尿激 素 生长激素 垂体 促…激素 催乳素 甲状腺 甲状腺激 素 胰岛素 胰岛 胰高血糖 素 雄性激素 雌性激素 肾上腺素 肾上腺 醛固酮

9肽 蛋白质 蛋白质 蛋白质 氨基衍生 物 蛋白质 29 肽 类固醇 类固醇 儿茶酚胺 脂质

从垂体释放,作用于肾小管集合管, 促进对水的重吸收 促进生长、骨生长。蛋白质合成 促进相应腺体的发育和激素分泌 促照顾幼崽及合成食物器官的发育 (鸽乳) 促进代谢,生长发育(脑) ,神经系统 兴奋 降低血糖浓度(促进糖去路,抑制糖 来源) 升高血糖浓度(促进糖来源,抑制糖 去路) 促进 生殖器官发育 生殖细胞成熟 维持第二性征 促代谢升体温,升血糖 作用于 肾小管集合管 钾 保钠排

性腺

46.神经调节、体液调节及其在稳态维持中的关系? 非特异性免疫(先天免疫) 第一道防线:皮肤、粘膜等 47、免疫 第二道防线:体液中杀菌物质、吞噬细胞 特异性免疫(获得性免疫) 第三道防线:体液免疫和细胞免疫 47、抗原特点:①一般异物性 (癌细胞例外)②大分子性③特异性 抗原决定簇(病毒的 衣壳) 47、体液免疫与细胞免疫

B 细胞

化 增 殖 分

记忆 B 细 胞 效应 B 细 抗体

结 合
抗原

体液免疫

致敏

抗原

摄 取 处 理

巨噬细胞

呈 递

胞 助 T 细胞

攻 击
效应胞毒 T 细 胞 靶细胞 细胞免疫

呈 递

化 增 殖 分 胞毒 T 细胞

记忆胞毒 T 细胞 效应 B 细胞产生:抗体(免疫球蛋白) 效应 T 细胞产生:淋巴因子(干扰素、白细胞介素)

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he "learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce part y's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The "two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

14

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is im portant. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest f aithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party mem bers a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long -term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

识别抗原:B 细胞、T 细胞、效应 T 细胞、记忆 B/T 效应 B 细胞获得有三途径(直接、间接、记忆)

(除了效应 B 以外)

48、免疫失调引起的疾病

再次接受过敏原(概念) 过敏反应 抗体分布●细胞表面 组织胺(非激素):体液调节 自身免疫疾病:风湿……类风湿……系统性红斑狼疮 先天性:先天性胸腺发育不全 免疫缺陷病 获得性:艾滋病 ↓AIDS 获得性免疫缺陷综合症 攻击 T 细胞

48.艾滋病的流行和预防

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he " learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce party's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different , but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The " two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

15

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is important. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest faithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party members a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long-term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn -lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

49.种群及其数量的变化 ? 种群的特征包括 种群密度、出生率和死亡率、迁入和迁出、年龄组成、性别比例 等。 年龄组成 对于预测种群数量的变化趋势具有重要的意义。种群的数量是由 出生率和死亡率 、 迁入和迁出 决定的。 ? 种群的年龄组成大致可分为三种类型:__增长型__,稳定型,衰退型. ? “J 型”增长——在资源无限、空间无限和不受其他生物制约的理想条件下,种群 就会成指数增长。其特点是:其实增长很慢,但随着种群基数的加大,增长会越

来越快。 ? “S 型”增长——逻辑斯蒂增长是指在资源有限、空间有限和受其他生物制约条 件下的种群增长方式。环境容纳量(即 k 值)是指在长时期内环境所能维持的种 群最大数量。逻辑斯蒂增长的特点是:种群起始呈加速增长,K/2 时增长最快, 此后便开始减速增长,到 K 值是便停止增长或在 K 值上下波动。

50.群落的结构特征和演替 ? 在一定的自然区域内,相互之间具有直接或间接关系的各种生物的总和,叫做生物 群落。生物群落的结构包括垂直结构和水平结构等方面。 ? 群落演替:随着时间的推移,一个群落被另一个群落代替的过程,就叫做演替 ? 初生演替:在一个从来没有被植物覆盖的地面,或者是原来存在过植被、但被彻底 消灭了的地方发生的演替。如沙丘、火山岩、冰川泥上进行的演替。 ? 次生演替:在原有植被虽已不存在,但原有土壤条件基本保留,甚至还保留了植物 的种子或其他繁殖体的地方发生的演替。如火灾过后的草原、过量砍伐的森林、弃耕的 农田上进行的演替 51.生态系统的结构 ? 生物群落与它的无机环境之间相互作用而形成的统一整体叫做生态系统。地球上 最大的生态系统是生物圈,它包括地球上的全部生物及其无机环境。 ? 生态系统的结构包括生态系统的成分和生态系统的营养结构。 ? 生态系统的成分包括非生物的物质和能量及生产者、消费者和分解者。

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he "learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce part y's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The "two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

16

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is im portant. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest f aithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party mem bers a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long -term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

?

生态系统的营养结构包括食物链和食物网

52.生态系统中物质循环和能量流动 ? 生态系统的能量流动图解: ? 由图可知,生态系统中能量流动的源头是阳光。生产者固定的太阳能的总量便是流 经这个生态系统的总能量,这些能量是沿着食物链(网)逐级流动的。 ? 生态系统能量流动的特点是单向流动和逐级递减。 在一个生态系统中, 营养级越多, 在能量流动中消耗的能量就越多。

未利用 ? 生态系统的物质循环 ? 在生态系统中,组成生物体的 C、H、O、N、P、S 等化学元素,不断进行着从无机环 境到生物群落,又从生物群落回到无机环境的循环过程,这就是生态系统的物质循环。 这里所说的生态系统,指的是地球上最大的生态系统——生物圈。 ? 碳循环主要是以二氧化碳的形式进行的,绿色植物通过光合作用,把大气中的二氧 化碳和水合成为糖类等有机物,生产者和消费者在生命活动过程中,通过呼吸作用,又 把二氧化碳释放到大气中。 53.生态系统的稳定性 ? 生态系统发展到一定阶段,它的结构和功能能保持相对稳定。生态系统所具有的保 持或恢复自身结构和功能相对稳定的能力,叫做生态系统的稳定性。生态系统的稳 定性包括抵抗力稳定性和恢复力稳定性等方面。 ? 抵抗力稳定性是指生态系统抵抗外界并使自身的结构和功能保持原状的能力,一般 地说,生态系统的成分越单纯,营养结构越简单,自动调节能力就越小,抵抗力稳 定性就越低,如农田生态系统。 ? 恢复力稳定性是指生态系统在外界干扰因素的破坏以后恢复到原状的能力。生态系 统的成分越复杂,营养结构越复杂,恢复力稳定性就越低,如森林生态系统。 54.生态农业 可持续发展的生态农业的生产模式由传统的“原料-产品-废料” 改变为现代的“原料产品-原料-产品”。 生态学的原理是发展生态农业的主要理论基础:生态系统中能量多级利用和物质循 环再生;生态系统中的各种生物之间存在着相互依存、相互制约的关系。 55.人类活动与环境保护

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he " learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce party's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different , but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The " two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

17

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is important. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest faithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party members a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long-term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn -lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

限制性内切酶 特异性(专一性)识别……切割…… 获得黏性末端 针线:DNA 连接酶:扶手(磷酸二脂键)不是踏板(氢键) 条件①复制保存②多切点③标记基因 运输工具:运载体 种类:质粒、病毒 提取目的基因 直接分离 常用鸟枪法 人工合成(反转录法 ;根据已知 AA 序列合成 DNA) 56、基因操作的步骤 目的基因与运载体结合 同一种限制酶 将目的基因导入受体细胞→细菌、酵母菌、动植物 CaCl2 处理增大细菌细胞壁的通透性 目的基因的检测(看标记基因是否表达)和表达(看是否能合成合 成相应 蛋白质或表象出相应的性状) 56、基因的操作工具 基因诊断(●DNA 分子杂交●探针) 、基因治疗、单克隆抗体、生物导弹(单抗+抗癌药物) 分泌蛋白:抗体、蛋白质类激素、消化酶等分泌到细胞外的蛋白质

剪刀:

植物组织培养 58、 植物细胞工程

离体 营养物质 激素 适宜温度 无菌 离体. . . → 愈伤组织 → 根芽(胚状体) →植物体 两种不同→去掉细胞壁, 分离出有活力的原生质体→杂 种细胞→新植物体 植物体细胞杂交 种间存在生殖隔离 不能有性杂交 好处:克服远源杂交不亲和障碍 培育新品种

动 59、物 60、细 61、胞 工 程

其它动物细胞工程技术的基础 液体培养基:动物血清 取自动物胚胎或出生不久的幼龄动物的器官或组织 用胰蛋白酶处理 原代培养→传代培养(细胞株→细胞系:遗传物质发生改变) 灭活的病毒做诱导剂+物理、化学 动物细胞融合 最重要用途:制备单克隆抗体 单克隆抗体→指单个 B 淋巴细胞克隆形成的细胞群产生的高度纯一的抗体 每一个 B 淋巴细胞只分泌一种特异性抗体√(百万种) ○杂交瘤细胞 ○生物导弹 胚胎移植 试管婴儿 多利羊 提高家畜的繁殖能力 核移植 动物细胞培养

66:叶绿体色素的提取和分离 实验原理: (1)叶绿体中的色素是有机物,不溶于水,易溶于丙酮等有机溶剂中,所以 用丙酮、乙醇等能提取色素。 (2)层析液是一种脂溶性很强的有机溶剂。叶绿体色素在 层析液中的溶解度不同,分子量小的溶解度高,随层析液在滤纸上扩散得快,溶解度低 的随层析液在滤纸上扩散得慢。所以用层析法来分离四种色素。

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he "learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce part y's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The "two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

18

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is im portant. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest f aithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party mem bers a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long -term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn-lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

67、生物课本中的物质鉴定 鉴定物质 还原性糖 脂肪 蛋 白 质 DNA 淀粉 酒精 亚硝酸 DNA 染色 RNA 染色 染色体染 色 实验试剂 斐林试剂 苏丹 III、 IV 双缩脲试剂 二苯胺 碘液 重铬酸钾 对氨基苯磺酸、N-1奈基乙二胺 甲基绿 派洛宁(比罗红) 龙胆紫(醋酸洋红) 实验现象 砖红色沉淀 III 橘黄色 IV 红色 紫色 蓝色 蓝色 灰绿色 玫瑰红色 蓝绿色 红色 蓝紫色(红色) 注意事项 试剂现用现配、 沸水浴加 热 必须用显微镜观察 先加 NaOH,后加 CuSO4 沸水浴加热 操作步骤(见下格) 酸性条件下 与已知浓度的标准显色 液进行目测比较

68: DNA 的粗提取与鉴定 实验原理:

DNA+二苯胺(沸水浴)——蓝色 69:土壤溶液中大肠杆菌的分离和鉴定 实验原理:在伊红-美蓝培养基(选择培养基)中培养大肠杆菌菌落呈深紫色并带有金属 光泽;稀释涂布平板法、平板划线分离法可以将微生物进行分离。 74 遗传学调查:群体调查、家系分析 75 生态学调查:样方法、标志重捕法

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he " learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce party's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different , but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The " two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

19

Learn General S ecretary on "two to l earn a" stre ngthe ning "four Consci ousne sses" important s pee ch caused a strong rea ction in t he country. T ime, watching "red trea sure", the origin of buildi ng the party ba ck to powe r, how to strengthen s ervices for the mas ses, impr ove party cohesi on, f ighting to become the gras s-r oots party members a nd mas ses hot topic. Grass -roots party organizati ons "two" is to stre ngthe n the service of party member s and ca dres, the pi one er spirit . Distri buti on of grass-r oots party organizati ons in all walks of people, clot hing, shelte r, w hich bel ong s to the nerve ending s of the party orga nization and comments re putation ha s a dire ct perce ption of the mas ses. Strengthen the party a head of the "pe dal" spirit; strengt hen t he party mem bers a nd cadres "s uccess does not have t o be me" a nd "the first to bear hards hips, the la st to" servi ce s pirit to set the party's positive image am ong t he pe opl e is important. Grass -root s party organizations "two" is t o clea nse all people not ha ppy not to see "stereoty pes", establi sh t he honest faithful , dilige nt faith for the people. No need to av oid menti oni ng that, s ome members of our party can not sta nd t he "mone y," corr osion of temptation, thi n, Xu Zhou, such abuse and corr upt br i bery, malfeasa nce borer s, and rats. Two, i s to cle an up, thi n, Xu, Zhou' s sol ution to restor e the party' s fresh and nat ural, solid a nd honest work style . Cleansing "take, eat, card," undes irable a nd behavi our, "cros s, har d and cold, pus h" attitude . Grass -roots party orga nizations "two" is to stre ngthen t he se nse of ordi nary party members , partici pating i n cons cious ness , unity consciousne ss. For rea sons know n, members of grass-roots party branches l ess mobile, l ess res our ces, a nd t he constr ucti on of party organizati ons have s ome lag. Two studie s, is t o focus on the grass -roots party bra nches "loose, s oft, loose" problem, adva nce the party members and ca dres, "a gang working", "Hong Kong re port." Strong cleanup a ctions, styl e and rambling , pres umptuous "unqualifie d" party members, pays s pe cial attention to party members a nd cadres "j oini ng party of thoug ht" problem. "Party buildi ng" is obtaine d in t he long-term development of our party's hi stori cal experie nce accumulate d. Tw o is our party under the new histori cal conditions, stre ngthe n the party's constructi on of a new "re ctification movement." Gras s-r oots party organi zations s hould alway s catch the hard w ork, res ults -orie nted. Two educati onal outcomes are l ong -term orie nted a nd become an important impetus for t he work . "Two" shoul d have t hree kinds of cons ciousne ss "two" st udy a nd e ducation, bas ic lear ning lie s in t he doing . Only the Constitution address t he s eries of party rules, and do soli d work , be qualifie d party member s ha d a s olid i deol ogical basi s. Only the "learning" and "do" real unit y, to form a "learn -lear n-do-do" the virtuous cycl e, and ultimately achieve t he fundamental obje ctive of educati on. T his re quires t hat the Orga nization

78-80、实验设计题解题一般思路 1、审题“五目标” :实验目的(确定是探究实验还是验证实验) 、原理、变量(自变量的 唯一性、无关变量控制相同且适宜、因变量(观察指标) ) 、联系所学知识点 2、设计“三原则”——对照原则(实验组、对照组) 、单因子变量原则、平行重复原则 (避免实验的偶然性、多次实验取平均值) 3、步骤“三环节”——(1)准备阶段、 (2)具体操作处理阶段(要将题目中提供的实 验器材、试剂在步骤中描述清楚) 、 (3)观察、记录(要体现观察指标) 4、关键词——分组、编号、等量、大小、生理状况、长势相同、均分、适宜条件下培养 等 5、实验结果的预测——探究性实验结果的可能性预测;验证性实验结果的肯定性。 注意:描述实验结果时要将所有组别全部描述;其中对照组的现象是不变的。 实验设计时的一般方法(操作步骤的四步曲)及表达: ⑴.取材\分组\编号: 取材时要注意数量和生理及发育状态相同;用具要相同 等. 表达:如选择长势相同,大小相似的同种植物(材料)随机平均分为 A\B 两组或甲\乙两 组. ⑵.相同处理和不同处理: 根据实验变量设计对照(注意单一因素不同,其他因素 相同且最适) 表达:如按实验要求分别对实验组和对照组进行处理(体现单一变量和等量原则) ⑶进一步的相同处理: 其他因素相同且最适的继续处理 表达:如把两个组放在适宜\相同的环境条件下培养一段时间. ⑷检测\观察\统计\比较:必须找出具体的观察和记录对象,观察\记录\统计\比较实 验数据和现象. 表达: 观察和记录实验数字并作记录.

learning e ducation, nee d three ki nds of consciousne ss: one i s to establi sh a n integrated aware nes s. "Lear ning" and "do" what car isTwo -w heel, bird wi ngs, need to g o ha nd in hand, one e nd ca n be negle cted. Communist the oreticia n and man. Only by clos ely com bini ng the ory and practi ce togethe r in order to tr uly realize the ir value. "Le arni ng" is the Foundati on, t he Foundati on i s not str ong, s haki ng; " "Is the key to net to net thousa nds of accounts. 。 泄 宣 值 价 感 情 华 升 结 总 验 经 识 知 活 实 炼 提 头 口 言 语 用 运 句 词 字 对 于 在 现 表 更 性 要 重 它 , 忆 记 和 考 思 象 想 联 、 力 察 观 的 生 学 养 培 能 但 不 作 写

"Two" education, "" lay the basi s, goi ng to "do" the key grip, so that t he "learni ng" and "doing" ba ck to standard, so that t he majority of party members "learn" learni ng the ory of nutrie nts, i n the "doing" practi ce part y's pur poses. Se cond, to e stablis h a se nse of dept h. "Lear ning" and "do" not Chu drawn, entirely different, but the organi c unity of the whole. "Two" lear ning educati on, we nee d to expl ore integrating "lear ning" in "do", exhibit "do" in "Scie nce". To avoi d the "learni ng" into sim ple room i nstruction,

"do" into a monotone for doing. Should expl oration "lear n" in the ha s "do", "do" in the ha s "learn" of education and pra ctice of carrier, makes ge neral grass -root s members can in "lear n" in the has "do" of achieveme nts se nse, i n "do" in the has "lear n" of get sense , real makes party of the ory brain into heart, put for pe ople s ervice conce pt out side of Yu sha ped. Third, to adhere to l ong -term the aware ness. Style construction on t he roa d forever, "two" ha d to catch the l ong -term. "Two" study a nd e ducation, by no means , assa ult-style wi nd-s port, but the re curre nt education within the party. I n rece nt years, the party's mass li ne educati on pra ctice a nd "thre e-thr ee" spe cial educati on i n grass -roots bor ne rich fruits, vast numbers of party members a nd ca dres wit hstood the bapti sm of the s pirit. "Two" greater need t o focus on longer hol d long-term, to esta blis h and perfect the effective mecha nism of the e ducation, focusing on the creation of long-term education, strive to make the vast number of party members to maintai n their vang uard Color, maintai n the party' s advanced nature a nd purity. Awarenes s-rai sing, a ntennas a nd atmos phere – a dis cussi on on how leadi ng ca dres of party member s "two" curre nt, "two" activity is in full s wing up and down the country, party ca dres as a "key minority" is both a barometer and impetus. The "two" meaning e nough deep, i s to determi ne the party cadre s can re solve to st udy hard first. In t he "two" in the process, some ca dres of himself, standi ng long, hig h awareness, t hat Constituti on Party r ules is simple, its not wort h botheri ng some party cadres t hink s peak s eries ha s nothing t o do w ith the gras s-r oots w ork, water busine ss lear ning s eries of s pee ches see n as window dres sing. These "laz y, ca sual, a nd deca dent" idea s lea rni ng lack s motivation, a serious impediment to "tw o" effect. John Stuart Mill once said, only a basi c element of human t hought patterns change

dramatically, huma n destiny can make great improveme nt. The same, only party member s and

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