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小学英语名词讲解及练习

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小学英语名词讲解及练习
一、名词的概念: 名词时某个人或物的名称,或是某类人或物的抽象名称。 如:student desk chair water milk …
二、名词的分类: 名词分为普通名词和专有名词两大类。名词在句子中作主语,宾语或表语等。 1.普通名词 普通名词是某类人、事件、物体和抽象概念的名称。根据所指代物体的特
征,普通名词又可分为以下四类:
A.个体名词: 表示人或物体中可以数清的单 个体。如:student(学生)、pen(钢笔)、 bird(鸟)等。
B.集体名词: (即集合名词)表示由个体组 成的集合体。如:people(人民)、police (警察)、family(家庭)等
C.物质名词: 表示构成物体物质的不可数名 词,或表示无法分为个体的物质的名词。 如:water(水)、air(空气)、wood(木 头)等。
D.抽象名词 : 表示动作、状态、品质、情感 等非具体化的抽象概念。如:work(工作)、 peace(和平)、love(爱)等。
2. 专有名词 : 专有名词是某些人、事物、 机构、组织等特有的名称。主要包括:人名、地 名、国名、党派名称等。如:Churchill(丘吉
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尔)、Tokyo(东京)、China(中国)等。

三、可数名词和不可数名词。

1、可数名词: 一般来说个体名词和集体名词可以用数目来计算,称为可数名词。可数名词有单数和复
数两种形式。 例如: a book, two books, a student, three students, a family, many families。 名词单数变复数变化如下: 1.词尾直接加 S 如:cat——cats bag——bags day——days 2.以 S, SH, CH, X 结尾的词加 es 如:class——classes match——matches box----boxes
dish ---- dishes 3.以辅音加 y 结尾的词变 y 为 i, 加 es. 元音加 y 结尾的词直接加 s,



:

party----parties city----cities story----stories

boy---- toys monkey-----

monkeys key---- keys 等.

4.以 f 或 fe 结尾的词, 变 f 或 fe 为 v, 加 es,

如: wife ---- wives half---- halves

注意特殊情况直接加“S”,要逐个记 chiefs,handkerchiefs, roofs.

5.以辅音加 o 结尾的词常 有生命的一般加 es 如: tomatoes, potatoes, heroes.

无生命的一般加 s. 如:radios, zoos, pianos, photos

名词的复数并不规则变化:

单 复 数 同 形 : sheep -----sheep fish----fish deer ----deer

people

-----people

特 殊 变 化 : man-men, woman-women, tooth---teeth, goose---geese,

foot---feet,

child--children, mouse-mice

2、不可数名词

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不可数名词不能用数字计算包括物质名词( air, water 等)及抽象名词(advice, hate)

等。所以它通常只有单数形式。如:English, air, water, cotton, work…

不可数名词表示数量时,可以用量词来表达(量词有复数形式)其结构是数词+量词

+of+名词。如:a bottle of water,two cups of tea,three pieces of paper

注意事项:

1.不可数名词没有复数变化,不能用 A,AN,但可用 THE,或不用冠词,

如:bread is the usual breakfast.

2.虽然不可数名词没有复数变化,但量词超过一时要加复数。

如:three cups of coffee, five bottles of water

3.有量词修饰时注意名词是否可数,不可数时用单数,可数时用复数,

如:ten bags of rice---- ten baskets of eggs

名词所有格

一、表示有生命物的名词的所有格

1.单数名词词尾加’s, 复数名词如果词尾没有 s,也要加’s。

the boy's bag

男孩的书包

Mike's knife

迈克的刀子

the children's room

孩子们的房间

men's room

男厕所

2.若名词已有复数词尾 s,只加 ’ the students' bags

学生们的书包

the teachers' reading-room

教师阅览室

3.表示几个人共有一样东西,只需在最后一个人的名字后加's。如表示各自所有,则需在各

个名字后加's。如:

This is Tom and Jason's room.

这是汤姆和杰森共有的房间。

These are Tom's and Jason's rooms. 这些是汤姆和杰森各自的房间。

二、.表示无生命物的名词所有格

1、如果名词是无生命的,我们就要用名词+of +名词的结构来表示所有关系。

the windows of the house

房间的窗户

the title of the song

歌的名字

the picture of the family

家庭照片

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2、在表示名词所有格时,'s 结构可以转换成 of 结构。

the girl's name → the name of the girl

女孩的名字

my father's friend →the friend of my father's 我父亲的朋友

3、有些表示时间、距离、国家、城市等无生命的东西的名词,也可以加's 来构成所有格。

Beijing's street

北京的街道

today's newspaper

今天的报纸

ten minutes' walk

十分钟的路程

名词练习 一圈出下列单词中的不可数名词 peach ink water zoo sister coffee knife snow ice tea orange fridge jeep rain wind car teacher music ear cola watermelon cherry 一. 写出下列名词的复数形式
1.watch__________ 2.class__________ 3.shelf__________ 4.dog__________ 5.dish__________ 6.child__________ 7.nurse__________ 8.desk__________ 9.boy__________ 10.baby__________ 11.tooth_________ 12.eye__________ 13.sheep_________ 14.tomato_______ 15.library_________ 16.goose_________ 17.photo________ 18.telephone_________
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二. 填入所给名词的适当形式

1. We have three________(pen).

2. This is an __________(apple).

3. Where is the__________(pencil)?

4. There is a little __________ in the bottle(juice).

5. Are you a __________(driver)? Yes, I am.

6. There are a few __________(watch)on the desk.

7. Many__________(shelf)are in our school library.

8. He has some__________(ink).

9. The__________(girl)in red is Mary.

10. How many__________(people)are there in your family? Three.

三. 单项选择题

( )1.There is __________on the table.

A. Plate

B. a plate

C. plates

( )2.I can see many __________in the garden.

A. flowers

B. a flower

C. flowers

( )3.The_____on the hills are all white.

A. sheep

B. sheeps

C. dog

( )4.These new_____are for you.

A. skirt

B. shoe

C. shirts

( )5.The clock has three______

A. legs

B. leg

C. faces

( )6.They are not in the same_______.

A. class

B. classes

C. familys

( )7.Is this your_____?

A. a key

B. keys

C. key

( )8.They are having_____.

A. a class

B. English class

C. Chinese class

( )9.There are so many _____in the hall.

A. peoples

B. people

C. a people

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( )10.The_____has some nice pictures.

A. boys

B. teachers

C. child

( )11.The_____are dancing at the party.

A. woman

B. women

C. man

( )12.The _____are in Room408.

A. student

B. a student

C. students

( )13.Who’s that_____? She’s my mother.

A. man

B. woman

C. women

( )14.The_____are catching the thief.

A. policeman

B. policemen

C. policemans

( )15.There are new _____in my schoolbag.

A.knife

B.knifes

C.knives

( )16._____jacket is it? May be it’s_____.

A. Who’s; Toms B. What; Tom’s

C. Whose; Tom’s

( )17.The books are the_____.

A. teachers’

B. teachers

C. teacher

( )18.There are a lot of children in the park on_____ Day.

A. children

B. Children’s

C. Childrens’

( )19.Is it the twins’ bedroom? Yes, it is. It’s_____ bedroom.

A. Ann and Anna’s B. Ann’s and Anna’s C. Ann and Anna

( )20.That is _____dog.

A. Tom’s

B. Toms C. Tom

( )21._____coats are very pretty.

A. Jim and Tim’s

B. Jim’s and Tim’s

C. Jim and Tim

( )22.They are going to their _____home for dinner.

A. uncles

B. uncle

C. uncle’s

( )23.The big room is_____.

A. the twin’s

B. twins’

C. the twins’

( )24.March 8th is_____.

A. Woman’s Day

B. Womans’ Day

C. Women’s Day

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四. 阅读理解

Look at the picture on the wall. It’s a picture of Mr. Green’s family. The

old man is Jim Green. He is Mr. Green’s father. Mr. Green is a worker. His wife,

Helen Green, is a doctor. They have two daughters. They are Lucy and Lily. They are

twins. Lucy and Lily have a cousin, Jeff. Jeff’s parents love them all very much.

( )1.The old man is Lucy and Lily’s__________.

A. father B. cousin

C. uncle

D. grandfather

( )2.The Greens have two__________.

A. brothers

B. sisters

C. sons

D. daughters

( )3.Lucy has__________.

A. a friend B. a sister

C. a brother

D. two sisters

( )4.Jeff’s father is Lucy and Lily’s__________.

A. Uncle

B. father

C. brother

D. grandfather

( )5.Lily’s mother is a __________.

A. doctor

B. worker

C. teacher

D. father

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